行为型 - 命令模式(Command)

命令模式(Command pattern): 将"请求"封闭成对象, 以便使用不同的请求,队列或者日志来参数化其他对象. 命令模式也支持可撤销的操作。@pdai

意图

将命令封装成对象中,以便使用命令来参数化其它对象,或者将命令对象放入队列中进行排队,或者将命令对象的操作记录到日志中,以及支持可撤销的操作。

类图

  • Command: 命令
  • Receiver: 命令接收者,也就是命令真正的执行者
  • Invoker: 通过它来调用命令
  • Client: 可以设置命令与命令的接收者

实现

设计一个遥控器,可以控制电灯开关。

public interface Command {
    void execute();
}
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public class LightOnCommand implements Command {
    Light light;

    public LightOnCommand(Light light) {
        this.light = light;
    }

    @Override
    public void execute() {
        light.on();
    }
}
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public class LightOffCommand implements Command {
    Light light;

    public LightOffCommand(Light light) {
        this.light = light;
    }

    @Override
    public void execute() {
        light.off();
    }
}
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public class Light {

    public void on() {
        System.out.println("Light is on!");
    }

    public void off() {
        System.out.println("Light is off!");
    }
}
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/**
 * 遥控器
 */
public class Invoker {
    private Command[] onCommands;
    private Command[] offCommands;
    private final int slotNum = 7;

    public Invoker() {
        this.onCommands = new Command[slotNum];
        this.offCommands = new Command[slotNum];
    }

    public void setOnCommand(Command command, int slot) {
        onCommands[slot] = command;
    }

    public void setOffCommand(Command command, int slot) {
        offCommands[slot] = command;
    }

    public void onButtonWasPushed(int slot) {
        onCommands[slot].execute();
    }

    public void offButtonWasPushed(int slot) {
        offCommands[slot].execute();
    }
}
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public class Client {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Invoker invoker = new Invoker();
        Light light = new Light();
        Command lightOnCommand = new LightOnCommand(light);
        Command lightOffCommand = new LightOffCommand(light);
        invoker.setOnCommand(lightOnCommand, 0);
        invoker.setOffCommand(lightOffCommand, 0);
        invoker.onButtonWasPushed(0);
        invoker.offButtonWasPushed(0);
    }
}
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JDK

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