行为型 - 访问者(Visitor)

访问者模式(visitor pattern): 当你想要为一个对象的组合增加新的能力, 且封装并不重要时, 就使用访问者模式。@pdai

意图

为一个对象结构(比如组合结构)增加新能力。

类图

  • Visitor: 访问者,为每一个 ConcreteElement 声明一个 visit 操作
  • ConcreteVisitor: 具体访问者,存储遍历过程中的累计结果
  • ObjectStructure: 对象结构,可以是组合结构,或者是一个集合。

实现

public interface Element {
    void accept(Visitor visitor);
}
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class CustomerGroup {

    private List<Customer> customers = new ArrayList<>();

    void accept(Visitor visitor) {
        for (Customer customer : customers) {
            customer.accept(visitor);
        }
    }

    void addCustomer(Customer customer) {
        customers.add(customer);
    }
}
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public class Customer implements Element {

    private String name;
    private List<Order> orders = new ArrayList<>();

    Customer(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    void addOrder(Order order) {
        orders.add(order);
    }

    public void accept(Visitor visitor) {
        visitor.visit(this);
        for (Order order : orders) {
            order.accept(visitor);
        }
    }
}
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public class Order implements Element {

    private String name;
    private List<Item> items = new ArrayList();

    Order(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    Order(String name, String itemName) {
        this.name = name;
        this.addItem(new Item(itemName));
    }

    String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    void addItem(Item item) {
        items.add(item);
    }

    public void accept(Visitor visitor) {
        visitor.visit(this);

        for (Item item : items) {
            item.accept(visitor);
        }
    }
}
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public class Item implements Element {

    private String name;

    Item(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void accept(Visitor visitor) {
        visitor.visit(this);
    }
}
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public interface Visitor {
    void visit(Customer customer);

    void visit(Order order);

    void visit(Item item);
}
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public class GeneralReport implements Visitor {

    private int customersNo;
    private int ordersNo;
    private int itemsNo;

    public void visit(Customer customer) {
        System.out.println(customer.getName());
        customersNo++;
    }

    public void visit(Order order) {
        System.out.println(order.getName());
        ordersNo++;
    }

    public void visit(Item item) {
        System.out.println(item.getName());
        itemsNo++;
    }

    public void displayResults() {
        System.out.println("Number of customers: " + customersNo);
        System.out.println("Number of orders:    " + ordersNo);
        System.out.println("Number of items:     " + itemsNo);
    }
}
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public class Client {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Customer customer1 = new Customer("customer1");
        customer1.addOrder(new Order("order1", "item1"));
        customer1.addOrder(new Order("order2", "item1"));
        customer1.addOrder(new Order("order3", "item1"));

        Order order = new Order("order_a");
        order.addItem(new Item("item_a1"));
        order.addItem(new Item("item_a2"));
        order.addItem(new Item("item_a3"));
        Customer customer2 = new Customer("customer2");
        customer2.addOrder(order);

        CustomerGroup customers = new CustomerGroup();
        customers.addCustomer(customer1);
        customers.addCustomer(customer2);

        GeneralReport visitor = new GeneralReport();
        customers.accept(visitor);
        visitor.displayResults();
    }
}
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customer1
order1
item1
order2
item1
order3
item1
customer2
order_a
item_a1
item_a2
item_a3
Number of customers: 2
Number of orders:    4
Number of items:     6
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JDK

  • javax.lang.model.element.Element and javax.lang.model.element.ElementVisitor
  • javax.lang.model.type.TypeMirror and javax.lang.model.type.TypeVisitor

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